Protein needs for 65 year old woman
The body is made up of more than muscles, each with a specific job. There are the involuntary muscles that perform essential functions such as swallowing and passing urine, then there are the skeletal muscles that help us move, the ones we can make bigger and stronger. A common misconception is that a higher protein intake will give you bigger muscles, however, muscle gain is influenced by the type of exercise you do and the frequency, as well as your age, gender and hormones. Instead, if you eat more than your body needs, that excess will be excreted through the kidneys as a waste product or stored as fat.
SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Nutrition For Building Muscle Over 50!Content:
- Daily protein needs for seniors still unsettled
- Protein Requirements and Recommendations for Older People: A Review
- Getting Enough Protein May Be the Key to Healthy Aging
- Nutrition needs when you’re over 65
- A key part of healthy aging: eating more protein
- How Much Protein Do You Need After 50?
- How Much Protein Does a Senior Citizen Need in a Day?
- 20 Ways To Get Your Elderly Parents to Eat More Protein With Their Meals
Daily protein needs for seniors still unsettled
Maintaining independence, quality of life, and health is crucial for elderly adults. One of the major threats to living independently is the loss of muscle mass, strength, and function that progressively occurs with aging, known as sarcopenia.
Several studies have identified protein especially the essential amino acids as a key nutrient for muscle health in elderly adults. Elderly adults are less responsive to the anabolic stimulus of low doses of amino acid intake compared to younger individuals. However, this lack of responsiveness in elderly adults can be overcome with higher levels of protein or essential amino acid consumption.
The requirement for a larger dose of protein to generate responses in elderly adults similar to the responses in younger adults provides the support for a beneficial effect of increased protein in older populations.
The purpose of this review is to present the current evidence related to dietary protein intake and muscle health in elderly adults. The United States is experiencing considerable growth in its elderly adult population. By , the population aged 65 and over is projected to reach nearly 84 million [ 1 ]. Maintaining independence, quality of life, and health is crucial for elderly adults [ 2 ]. One of the major threats to living independently is the loss of muscle mass, strength, and function that progressively occurs with aging, known as sarcopenia [ 2 , 3 ].
A loss or reduction in skeletal muscle function often leads to increased morbidity and mortality either directly, or indirectly, via the development of secondary diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity [ 3 , 4 ]. The prevalence of obesity among elderly adults has also increased over the last several decades. For example, the prevalence of obesity among men aged 65—74 increased from One reason for the increase in obesity could be due to body composition shifts that occur as we age, resulting in a higher percentage of body fat and decreases in muscle mass with age [ 6 ].
Both sarcopenia and obesity act synergistically, which increases the risk of negative health outcomes and earlier onset of disability [ 2 ]. Nutrition plays an essential role in the health and function of elderly adults [ 7 ]. Inadequate nutrition can contribute to the development of both sarcopenia and obesity [ 3 , 8 ].
As life expectancy continues to rise, it is important to consider optimal nutritional recommendations that will improve health outcomes, quality of life, and physical independence in elderly adults [ 5 ].
Several studies have identified protein as a key nutrient for elderly adults reviewed in [ 3 , 8 ]. Protein intake greater than the recommended amounts may improve muscle health, prevent sarcopenia [ 9 ], and help maintain energy balance, weight management [ 10 ], and cardiovascular function [ 11 , 12 , 13 ].
Benefits of increased protein intake include improved muscle function and the prevention onset of chronic diseases, which can increase quality of life in healthy elderly adults [ 3 ]. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to present the current evidence related to dietary protein intake and muscle health in elderly adults. Traditionally, protein recommendations have been based on studies that estimate the minimum protein intake necessary to maintain nitrogen balance [ 3 , 8 ].
However, the problem with relying on these results is that they do not measure any physiological endpoints relevant to healthy aging, such as muscle function. The current dietary recommendations for protein intake include the dietary reference intakes DRI for macronutrients, which include an estimated average requirement EAR , a recommended dietary allowance RDA and an acceptable macronutrient distribution range AMDR [ 14 ].
In the case of daily protein intake, the EAR for dietary protein is 0. The RDA for protein was based on all available studies that estimate the minimum protein intake necessary to avoid a progressive loss of lean body mass as determined by nitrogen balance [ 3 , 8 ]. The Food and Nutrition Board recognizes a distinction between the RDA and the level of protein intake needed for optimal health.
Experts in the field of protein and aging recommend a protein intake between 1. The RDA of 0. Most published results, based on data from either epidemiological or short-term studies, indicate a potential beneficial effect of increasing protein intake in elderly adults. These data demonstrate that elderly adults, compared with younger adults, are less responsive to low doses of amino acid intake [ 18 ].
However, this lack of responsiveness in healthy older adults can usually be overcome with higher levels of essential amino acid EAA consumption [ 18 ]. This is also reflected in studies comparing varying levels of protein consumption [ 19 ], suggesting that the lack of muscle responsiveness to lower doses of protein intake in elderly adults can be overcome with a higher level of protein intake.
The requirement for a larger dose of protein to generate responses in elderly adults similar to the responses in younger adults provides the support for a beneficial effect of increased protein in older populations [ 8 ].
There appears to be an EAA threshold when it comes to stimulating muscle protein synthesis. Ingestion of relatively small amounts of EAA 2. However, a larger dose of EAA 20—40 g fail to elicit an additional effect on protein synthesis in young and older subjects. Similar results were observed after the ingestion of either or g of lean beef containing 10 or 30 g EAA, respectively [ 23 ].
Despite a threefold increase in EAA content, there was no further increase in protein synthesis in either young or older subjects following consumption of g versus g of protein. There are fewer data regarding the response of protein breakdown to different levels of protein or amino acid intake.
The balance between protein synthesis and breakdown is discussed in more detail below. Essential amino acids, especially the branched-chain amino acid leucine, are potent stimulators of muscle protein synthesis.
Studies have focused on the stimulation of muscle protein synthesis via the protein kinase mTORC1 mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 [ 24 , 25 , 26 ], but the in vivo significance of this mechanism as a regulator of the rate of protein synthesis in human subjects is not yet proven.
Several studies demonstrate that maximal stimulation of muscle protein synthesis is possible with 15 g of EAA reviewed in [ 20 ].
A larger amount of lower quality protein, which contains a lower content of EAA, would be required to achieve the same functional benefits. The addition of nonessential amino acids to a supplement containing EAA does not result in additional stimulation of muscle protein synthesis [ 27 ], indicating that the quality of the protein, or its amino acid profile, is a key determinant of the functional potential of protein in muscle health.
This is supported by several studies demonstrating that the ingestion of milk proteins, compared with the ingestion of soy protein stimulates muscle protein synthesis to a greater extent after resistance exercise, owing to the higher content of EAA in milk protein [ 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 ].
The data from the Health, Aging and Body Composition study support these findings [ 31 ], showing that intake of animal protein with greater content of EAA , but not plant protein, was significantly associated with the preservation of lean body mass over three years in older adults [ 31 ].
When considering protein intake, it is also important to consider total energy intake. This reduction in BMR is closely associated with the loss in fat-free mass, including muscle, and the gain of less metabolically active fat [ 35 ] that occurs as we age [ 33 ]. This implies that aging adults require a lower daily energy intake. However, the extent to which BMR may increase or decrease with age depends on the balance between weight gain with age, tending to increase BMR, and aging, which decreases BMR [ 35 ].
Although older adults typically eat less than younger adults, including less protein [ 15 , 16 ], it is important for aging adults to consider total caloric intake when choosing a protein source to incorporate in the diet. The discrepancies in quality between animal and plant protein sources go beyond the amino acid profiles.
When the energy content of the protein source is accounted for, the caloric intake needed to meet the EAA requirements from plant sources of protein is considerably higher than the caloric intake from animal sources of protein [ 36 ]. This is important to consider since obesity, especially with aging, is a major public health concern.
Obesity is the most predominant factor limiting mobility in the elderly [ 37 ]. There is abundant evidence that muscle plays a central role in the prevention of many chronic diseases, including diabetes and obesity [ 38 ].
In addition, evidence that optimal health for elderly adults is dependent on maintaining muscle mass is emerging [ 3 , 8 ]. EAAs are the primary nutrients responsible for the maintenance of muscle mass and function, but elderly individuals have reduced anabolic sensitivity to amino acids termed anabolic resistance. An increasing amount of evidence suggests that a minimum threshold of EAA needs to be reached to elicit an anabolic muscle response, and older individuals require a higher concentration of amino acids compared to younger individuals.
Optimal protein intake per meal can be defined as the minimal dose of protein intake that results in the maximal anabolic response and thus can help maintain or improve muscle mass reflected as lean body mass and function over time. The optimum amount for elderly adults 0. It is likely that elderly individuals need more protein intake to achieve a maximal anabolic response per meal considering the varying degrees of quality of protein eaten in the real world.
This led to an interesting hypothesis that spreading daily protein intake evenly throughout the day can result in a greater cumulative anabolic response than the skewed pattern of protein intake [ 40 ].
If this is the case, elderly adults can gain benefits regarding improvement in muscle mass and strength, and related functions, simply by adopting even distribution pattern of equal amounts of protein intake [ 40 ].
However, the rationale behind this hypothesis is largely incorrect, as the hypothesis was solely based on data on muscle protein synthesis MPS , which is only one half of the equation determining net anabolic response i. The significance of simultaneous measurement of both protein synthesis and breakdown is dependent on a number of catabolic conditions i. This issue is important when quantifying the net anabolic response to dietary protein intake.
Furthermore, although net anabolic response at the muscle level is the most relevant physiological response, the whole body is potentially involved in the anabolic response to protein ingestion, as approximately half of the total body protein turnover occurs at non-muscle tissues, particularly gut tissue [ 42 ]. Thus, determination at the muscle level could underestimate total anabolic response.
For example, a large portion of the amino acids absorbed from a meal is retained in gut proteins that turn over rapidly [ 42 , 43 ], particularly following a mixed meal, due largely to a systemic insulin response [ 42 ]. Those amino acids can, in turn, be released into the blood over time as a result of a protein breakdown and be used for incorporation into new proteins in muscle.
This is of particular importance in situations where older adults consume a protein intake greater than the amount that stimulates a maximal MPS. Consistent with this notion, our recent findings showed that similar MPS responses were achieved by two doses of protein intake 40 g vs. Instead, we found the higher protein intake i. Strikingly, the positive anabolic response achieved with both levels of protein intake was largely due to reductions in protein breakdown, indicating the importance of simultaneous determination of both protein synthesis and breakdown, as protein synthesis actually declined with 0.
These results extended previous findings shown by the Deutz group [ 46 , 47 ], indicating that the amount of total protein, but not the pattern of protein intake, is of importance with respect to maximizing anabolic response. Importantly, the linear relationship between the amount of protein intake and anabolic response has been recognized for more than half a century, as determined by a nitrogen balance technique, although the anabolic response beyond RDA for protein i.
Therefore, data indicate that there is no practical limit to the anabolic response in increasing amount of dietary protein intake. These factors include the quality of protein consumed, the contribution of protein breakdown to the net anabolic response, and the potential involvement of whole body response, all of which result in the considerable underestimation of the maximal anabolic response. If the goal of the optimal level of protein intake is considered to be the amount needed to maximally stimulate protein anabolism i.
Unfortunately, long-term studies assessing the effect of this level of dietary protein consumption on functional outcomes in elderly adults have not been performed. Signaling through mTORC1 is involved in the regulation of several anabolic processes in the body including protein synthesis [ 26 , 49 , 50 ]. In skeletal muscle, amino acids signal through mTORC1 to initiate the process of protein synthesis [ 25 , 51 , 52 , 53 ].
Signals provided by EAA, especially leucine, are required for full activation of this pathway [ 25 , 51 , 54 ]. Muscle becomes resistant to the normal stimulatory effects of postprandial leucine concentrations with increasing age [ 18 ], which may result in the reduced stimulation of the mTORC1 pathway and reduced activation of translation initiation and subsequent MPS.
This could be due to a reduced sensitivity to leucine with age, to less efficient absorption of leucine from the gut, or to the fact that the dietary protein intake tends to decrease with age [ 8 , 55 , 56 ]. In response to 10 g of EAA, mTORC1 phosphorylation, or activation, while significantly increased in skeletal muscle of elderly adults, is still significantly lower in younger adults [ 22 ].
Guillet et al. These findings are supported by Fry et al. Gene expression of proteins associated with muscle protein synthesis and satellite cell function also differ between young and elderly adults in response to exercise and supplementation with EAA [ 59 ]. In addition, after only seven days of bed rest, elderly adults had a reduced response to EAA ingestion resulting in no increase in MPS, activation of translation initiation factors 4E-BP1 and p70S6K , and no increase in amino acid transporters [ 60 ].
Elderly adults also had decreased LAT1 L-type amino acid transporter and SNAT2 sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 following seven days of bed rest [ 60 ]. These findings are further supported in a study by Tanner et al. These data are important because they demonstrate how quickly an injury or hospital stay could decrease skeletal muscle function. While all of these data suggest a potential role of changes in sensitivity of mTORC1 and related factors in the anabolic response as well as anabolic resistance in elderly adults, it must also be acknowledged that the nature of the data is correlational and thus does not definitively prove a cause—effect relationship.
Protein Requirements and Recommendations for Older People: A Review
Join AARP today. Get instant access to discounts, programs, services and the information you need to benefit every area of your life. Beans and legumes, including all types of dried beans, split peas and lentils, are considered good sources of protein.
Protein is an essential nutrient for all age groups, but it's particularly critical to get enough as you age. Protein is a backup source of energy when carbohydrates and fat aren't available, and it helps repair skin and tissues and improves skeletal strength. Before making changes to your diet, check with your physician to ensure you're getting enough protein without going overboard. The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine recommends that men over age 50 get at least 56 grams of protein daily.
Getting Enough Protein May Be the Key to Healthy Aging
My mom is a little feather of an year-old, quite thin and less than five feet tall. Protein is good for building and maintaining muscle and bone. A new study aimed to extend the benefits even further, to stroke prevention. Researchers in China analyzed seven studies that included more than , participants who ranged in age from their mids to their 80s. They were followed for an average of 14 years. The results were published online today in the journal Neurology. That seems like a pretty important finding. Stroke is a major cause of death and disability. But should we buy it?
Nutrition needs when you’re over 65
You already know that protein is pretty important, but did you know that it becomes even more vital as you age? In people of all ages, the essential nutrient can make meals feel more filling, and is key for building and maintaining strong muscles, bones, and other tissues, according to the National Institutes of Health NIH. And as you move into your 60s, protein begins to play an even bigger role in protecting your health, says Tara Stulce , RD, a registered dietitian and clinical instructor of biomedical sciences at Missouri State University. Read on to find out how. Plus, pick up some quick and easy ways to add more of the nutrient to your diet.
Declines in skeletal muscle mass and strength are major contributors to increased mortality, morbidity and reduced quality of life in older people. The aim of this paper was to review definitions of optimal protein status and the evidence base for optimal dietary protein. Current recommended protein intakes for older people do not account for the compensatory loss of muscle mass that occurs on lower protein intakes.
A key part of healthy aging: eating more protein
The significance of nutrition for aging of man can be considered under three headings. First, many physiological functions decline progressively throughout adult life. The significance of nutrition in altering the progress of these changes is largely unknown. Second, aging is associated with the emergence of chronic diseases, some of which probably include nutritional factors in their etiology.
When you hear high protein diet do you think of bodybuilders? Men and women with large arm, chest and leg muscles? Bodybuilders need high amounts of protein because they build muscle. But a high protein diet is important for seniors, too. No matter your age or level of fitness, you also need protein. Your body relies on protein to function.
How Much Protein Do You Need After 50?
Grocery shelves are full of products pitching their protein content from energy bars to cereals to pasta. But how much protein do you really need in a day? And if you follow a plant-based anti-aging diet, can you get enough of this fundamental nutrient? Protein is used to build and maintain muscles, bones, and skin. It also makes up enzymes that govern the chemical processes that keep us alive.
This is because proteins are building blocks that contribute to the successful functioning of the entire body. They are used not only to build and repair tissues, including muscles, tendons, skin, and organs but also to make hormones and enzymes. In addition to helping individuals stay at a healthy weight and absorb key nutrients, proteins also contribute to lower blood pressure and cholesterol, enhanced concentration, higher energy and stabilized blood sugar levels, bone health and learning improvements—things many seniors struggle with as they age.
How Much Protein Does a Senior Citizen Need in a Day?
In fact, the body actually requires more protein as you get older. Why, you ask? And the need increases further if you are a woman thanks to menopause.
20 Ways To Get Your Elderly Parents to Eat More Protein With Their Meals
Campbell , an expert on dietary protein and human health. The current recommended dietary allowance for women older than 70 years is 0. This amount is the same for all women 19 and older.
Victorian government portal for older people, with information about government and community services and programs. Type a minimum of three characters then press UP or DOWN on the keyboard to navigate the autocompleted search results. Nutrition needs vary with age and gender. How you eat as an older person will also vary depending on your gender: older men have different nutritional needs from older women.