What does the average 40 year old american woman look like
Providing an integrated and thorough representation from current research and contemporary society, Family Ties and Aging shows how pressing issues of our time—an aging population, changing family structures, and new patterns of work-family balance—are negotiated in the family lives of middle-aged and older adults. Focusing on key questions such as "How do current trends and social arrangements affect family relationships? Barnett explore groups and relationships that are typically overlooked, including the unique family situations of older single and childless persons, sibling ties, older lesbian and gay adults, and new forms of intimate relationships. This award is in memory of a woman of intellect, integrity, humility, and generosity, Alexis J. Walker, whose example and mentoring continue to have a profound influence on the lives of many scholars and students.
40 Ways to Look Younger After 40
The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely unknown.
We studied the facial appearance of pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as British females aged 45 to Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles.
There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked young or old for their age indicated that the structure of subcutaneous tissue was partly responsible.
Heritability analyses of the appearance features revealed that perceived age, pigmented age spots, skin wrinkles and the appearance of sun-damage were influenced more or less equally by genetic and environmental factors. Hair graying, recession of hair from the forehead and lip height were influenced mainly by genetic factors whereas environmental factors influenced hair thinning.
These findings indicate that women who look young for their age have large lips, avoid sun-exposure and possess genetic factors that protect against the development of gray hair and skin wrinkles. The findings also demonstrate that perceived age is a better biomarker of skin, hair and facial aging than chronological age. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Some of the authors are employed by Unilever PLC and were involved in the design, data collection and analysis as well as the decision to publish. Competing interests: Although no products were tested or involved in this manuscript, it is possible this manuscript could promote sales of anti-wrinkle creams which might lead to financial gain for Unilever PLC. The ability to estimate age has evolved as it enables an individual to evaluate, for example, the suitability of a potential mate  , .
Perceived age is socially relevant to many individuals as evidenced by the large and global cosmetics industry. In addition, perceived age has been shown to be predictive of mortality in elderly individuals and associated with predictors of age-related diseases independently of chronological age  ,  ,  indicating its utility as a biomarker of aging.
Biomarkers of aging are measures of an individual's or tissue's biological age i. However, there has been little work to systematically determine which physiological features predominately influence how old women look for their age and, hence, which features drive the link between perceived and biological age.
The influence of particular features on the perception of age depends on the context in which a subject is viewed. For example, photographs can be viewed with or without hair and clothing cues e. The benefit of using photographic images is that the cues present for age estimation can be controlled and standardized.
Additionally, estimating age from images has been shown to be highly reproducible when employing large numbers of age assessors . Thus, photography is now the predominant method for generating perceived age. Previous perceived age work has found that increased sun-damage  , male pattern baldness  ,  , gray hair  , under eye wrinkles and bags  , pigmented spots  , skin topography i. However, the use of different methods to estimate perceived age and the different features measured in each study make it difficult to ascertain which skin and hair aging features dominate the perception of age.
Additionally, it is unclear how the use of different photographic images in each study affects the relationship between perceived age and skin and hair aging features. Modern cosmetic surgical techniques target subcutaneous tissues to create a youthful look  —  suggesting that physiological changes underneath the skin are important modulators of how old one looks.
Evidence for the link, though, between changes to subcutaneous tissue and age perception is limited, partly due to the difficulty in measuring subcutaneous changes. The rate and degree to which physiological changes occur are determined by genetic and environmental factors. However, the degree of influence genetic factors have on features of female appearance are largely unknown. For example, whether it is sun-exposure or genetic factors that mainly underlie the variation in sun-damaged skin present in Caucasian populations is unknown.
Estimating the influence genetic factors have on a particular feature can indicate, for example, the utility of using Genome Wide Association GWA approaches to investigate the etiology of the feature. Here, to investigate the link between perceived age and biological age we have investigated the strength of relationship between how old women look for their age and skin, hair and lip aging features.
Additionally, we investigated the impact on such relationships of using different types of photographic image to generate perceived age. To determine whether future investigations into the identity of factors that influence facial aging should focus on genetic or environmental factors, we have utilized monozygotic and dizygotic twins to estimate the influence genetic factors have on perceived age as well as on skin, hair and lip aging features.
Furthermore, we have constructed composite images of individuals who look either young or old for their age to demonstrate the striking differences in perceived age that can occur between individuals of the same chronological age.
Monozygotic and dizygotic Danish female twins aged 59—81 years had their age assessed, by an average of 71 assessors, in facial photographic images that had been cropped around the lower neck and scalp hair line see Methods section 3. The resulting mean estimates of perceived age revealed that some twin sisters looked considerably different in age from each other.
To examine why such differences existed, four composite or average facial images were created from the 14 most discordant perceived age monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs Fig. Composite images are created by merging together facial images using the facial shape, skin color and skin topology information present in each image.
Such composite images have been shown to reflect the ages of the individuals used to create the images  ,  and, thus, capture some of the changes in facial appearance that occur with age. There were marked differences between the Danish twin composite images in the appearance of skin color and topology as well for features of face shape, particularly the size of the lips and the nasolabial fold Fig.
The differences between the dizygotic twin composites were more striking than the monozygotic twin composites indicating an influence of genetic factors on perceived age. The older looking twin sister composites demonstrate signs of increased skin wrinkling, increased nasolabial fold shadowing running from the lateral edge of the nose to the outer edge of the mouth and, particularly for the non-identical twin comparison, a grayer skin color, a thinner face and reduced lip fullness.
Each composite image was derived from 14 twin images and the chronological age was 67 [60—76] and 69 [61—79] for the monozygotic and dizygotic composites respectively; square brackets denote age ranges. To confirm that the visual differences in evidence between the Danish twin composites were reflective of facial aging differences in other Caucasian populations, perceived ages of British females aged 45—75 years were estimated. The estimated means were used to create 2 composite images representing women who looked either old or young for their age.
In addition, 50 and 70 year chronological aged composites were created. Similar differences to those in evidence in the twin composite image comparisons were in evidence in the British perceived and chronological age composite comparisons Fig.
Composite images of a , 50 year olds mean chronological age 50 [48—52] and b , 70 year olds mean chronological age 70 [68—72]. Differences in skin wrinkling and the nasolabial fold upper and lower images and lip fullness lower image are similar to those in the twin composites Figure 1. The upper images were each derived from 18 female images and the lower images from The mean chronological age was 71 [67—75] and 70 [66—74] for the young and old looking 70 year old composites respectively; square brackets denote age ranges.
To determine to what degree perceived age is an indicator of skin aging in the face, skin wrinkling and pigmented age spot grading of the facial photographs and topographical analysis of skin beside the left eye i.
Perceived age data generated from the facial images were found to be significantly and strongly correlated, after controlling for chronological age, with facial skin wrinkling and wrinkle depth a topography measure, see Methods 3. Thus, skin wrinkling was strongly related to looking older for one's age confirming the visual differences present in the composite images Figs.
The appearance of skin wrinkling is one of the main features indicative of the severity of sun-damage present in faces, predominantly when it appears alongside other features typical of sun-damage in exposed body sites . To determine the strength of relationship between sun-damage and perceived age, grading of the images for the presence of features consistent with sun-damage was carried out. Sun-damage was significantly and strongly correlated to the perceived age data generated from facial images in both the Danish twin and British populations Table 1 supporting evidence that sun-exposure is associated with looking older for one's age .
In addition, both facial skin wrinkling and wrinkle depth in the crows feet area were significantly and strongly correlated to sun-damage in both populations after controlling for chronological age, similar to findings reported in the literature  ,  , . Hence, chronic sun-exposure was likely to have caused some of the differences in skin wrinkling apparent between the younger and older looking composites Figs.
However, sun-exposure is not the only factor that influences the development of skin wrinkles. For example, repeated skin contouring caused by forces external to the skin  ,  and by muscle contractions  have also been implicated in the development of skin wrinkles. There was a significant correlation between the perceived ages of the British subjects and the pigmented spot grading without adjusting for chronological age see SI Table S1 , similar to findings in the literature .
However, pigmented age spots did not significantly correlate with perceived age in either population after adjusting for chronological age Table 1 , in contrast to a previously reported study . Further work is required to determine whether study power, methodologies or the subjects examined underlie the difference between the findings.
Here, although related to perceived age per se, pigmented age spots were not significantly correlated to how old women look for their age. The pigmented spot grading had a significant but weak to moderate correlation with wrinkles and sun-damage after adjusting for chronological age Table 1. These data highlight the complexity of the relationship between pigmented spots, skin type and sun-damage; for example, actinic lentigines are more prevalent in Asian than Caucasian skin  whereas freckles are more prevalent in fair-skinned than dark-skinned Caucasians .
Hence, although sun-exposure causes an increase in the number of pigmented spots, it does so differentially depending on the skin type of the individual, which also determines whether they present alongside other signs of sun-damage such as skin wrinkling.
No scalp hair cues were present in the cropped facial images used to generate perceived age see section 3. However, hair aging features could be important modulators of age perception.
Therefore, hair recession hair loss on the frontal and temporal region of the head , hair thinning on the top of the head female pattern hair loss and hair graying were measured in the Danish twin population along with how old the twins looked in passport-type photographs. Hair thinning and graying were found to be weakly but significantly correlated with each other Table 1 , although this link could be partly due to the measurement technique SI Discussion.
Hair graying and hair thinning but not hair recession were found to be significantly correlated with how old the Danish twins looked for their age in the passport-type images Table 1 and also SI Fig. Hair recession was not in evidence in some of the passport-type images due to subjects' hair-styles. This could account for the lack of any significant correlation between hair recession and perceived age Table 1. There was also no significant correlation between the hair features and perceived age when hair cues were removed from the images i.
This indicated there could be a positive causal relationship for hair graying and thinning with perceived age. Data were collected from the Danish twin participants on the use of hair colorants.
Those who reported that they used hair colorants looked significantly younger for their age than those who did not in the passport-type images differences in mean perceived ages when controlling for chronological age was 1.
Therefore, the link between perceived age and gray hair was causal in nature rather than associative. A comparison between the perceived ages of the Danish twins in the facial images and the passport-type images, generated by the same assessors, revealed that the twins looked older for their age in the facial images differences in perceived age means was 4.
Taken in conjunction with the hair colorant result, the cues present in the passport—type images that can be modified to convey youthfulness i. There was no significant correlation for any of the hair aging features with the skin aging features or the perceived age data generated from the facial images.
However, despite the differences between the facial and passport-type images the correlation between the perceived age data from the facial images and the passport-type images was high Table 1. Thus, twins who looked young for their age generally did so in both types of image. Here, perceived age was found to be a good biomarker of aging as significant correlations were found between skin and hair aging features and perceived age after adjusting for chronological age Table 1.
Differences in lip size were in evidence in the composite comparisons Figs. To verify that lip size was linked to how old women looked for their age, lip height was measured as an indicator of lip size in the photographs of both the Danish twin and British populations and was also found to be significantly correlated with perceived age in the facial images of both populations after adjusting for chronological age Table 1.
Therefore, perceived age was a good marker of the biological age of the skin, hair and lips and has utility in gerontology studies over and above the use of chronological age. To determine whether the skin, hair and lip features were related to perceived age independently of each other as well as chronological age, linear regression models were utilized to predict perceived age in both populations. For the perceived ages generated from the Danish twin passport-type images and excluding those who used hair dye, only skin wrinkles and hair graying had significant prediction in a linear model Table 2.
When hair graying was excluded from the model, hair thinning became a significant predictor of how old women look for their age SI Table S2. This suggests that hair thinning might only have correlated to how old women looked for their age because it was a proxy of hair graying. Male pattern baldness makes young but not elderly men look older for their age . Hair thinning might, therefore, have a greater influence on how old women look for their age in younger age groups. For the Danish facial images, wrinkles, lip height and hair recession were independently predictive of how old the twins looked for their age Table 2.
Is Your Face Older Than You Are?
The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely unknown. We studied the facial appearance of pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as British females aged 45 to
Just as you take care of the rest of the body, be sure to take care of your eyes and vision, too. Doctors will look for issues like glaucoma, which presents early with visual field loss and later with central vision loss. Though cataracts generally present later in life, some individuals may have issues earlier. Your doctor can help with the itchiness and redness with prescription eye drops or other recommendations. Your 40s may find you reaching for reading glasses due to presbyopia, a normal age-related change that makes it tough to focus on nearby objects.
The 6 biggest health mistakes women make in their 40s
By Jo Rhodes For Mailonline. Looking young is something most women strive for but only a few are lucky enough to achieve without going under the knife. But FEMAIL has been contacted by many MailOnline who say they can pass for ten - or sometimes 20 years - younger than their age, with some even mistaken for their son's girlfriend! Their secrets range from everything from a thorough skin care regime, to Pilates, good genes or a positive outlook on life. Here 13 women aged 31 to 67 share the secrets of their age-defying looks. This is what 45 looks like: Kimberly, who is Australian but now lives in Manila in the Philippines, is constantly being told she looks younger than her years. Despite being addicted to Big Macs and Coca Cola while she was expecting she snapped straight back into shape after her C-section - and was back in her regular clothes after a week. The stylist and travel writer has a young daughter and feels blessed to have had a very normal pregnancy, despite her age.
13 women who look much younger than they really are
Yes, we've heard it endlessly for years — wrinkles make you look old, and a fresh, rosy glow makes you look young. But honestly, a few smile lines mean a life well-lived, right? If you're worried though, these common skin conditions often tack on more years than you might want. Why: Accumulated sun damage can cause the support structure of the pores to sag, making them look wider.
Two thousand and sixteen saw me wave goodbye to my thirties and tentatively step on to the descending side of 'the hill'. As milestone birthdays go, this is one that tends to evoke a lot of emotions. In the movie, 'This is 40', the pending 40th birthday of the leading character led to a major meltdown.
Photo Gallery: What 50 Looks Like
Website did not clarify this textbook would be in looseleaf form. Baca ulasan lengkap. The integration of psychological, social, and biological components of human sexuality in this text is facilitated by the authors' combined academic and professional backgrounds.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: The Average Face Of Women From 40 Different Countries
With the rise of mass media throughout the 20th century, the popular image of women in America has undergone a substantial change. From Marilyn Monroe to Kate Moss, the body shapes of the most admired models have remained consistently slimmer than that of the average American woman , representing a nearly impossible ideal. This has resulted in a severe rise in weight anxieties and negative body image among women and girls. Dissatisfaction with weight is nearly universal among women, while dieting is pervasive. Girls as young as 6 are commonly unhappy with their weight. This trend has likewise been reflected around the world wherever this media culture has become dominant.
Why Modern 30-Year-Old Women Look Younger Than They Used To
Male pattern baldness makes young but not elderly men look older for their age. My oldest son is 31 and my oldest grandson is nearly 3'. Are you angry enough to push yourself forward? A single woman over 30 has not necessarily been promiscuous. People keep saying 'Women are valuable as wives and mothers. I am on the short climb to 60 myself. We solved our issues, and we are even happier than before you are the best spell caster Dr.
Account Options Login. Koleksiku Bantuan Penelusuran Buku Lanjutan. Dapatkan buku cetak. Belanja Buku di Google Play Jelajahi eBookstore terbesar di dunia dan baca lewat web, tablet, ponsel, atau ereader mulai hari ini. Chris Hilicki.
The youthful days are bygone and the future awaits the highs and lows of old age. Women can undergo a great deal of physical and emotional changes during this phase. Often, trying to juggle between the mind that is still young while the body tends to hold back and give up on certain levels.
And it turned out he was wrong. The women were not my age at all. One was actually a full five years younger than me. Which made me — in my own words — an Old Bird.